General Saturn IB Diagrams
I come across many Saturn IB diagrams which, while interesting, are not so interesting that they necessarily merit their own separate page. I have created this page as a repository for such diagrams.
I'll start off with a couple of diagrams which are more artistic than technical.
Many of these early Saturn IB drawings depict early Saturn IB concepts, with a checkerboard roll pattern painted on the Spacecraft-Lunar Module Adapter (SLA), turbine exhaust fairings (present only on SA-201 and SA-202, the first two Saturn IBs which were manufactured), and engine shrouds (present only on SA-201, the first Saturn IB).
If you look closely, you'll see the "SA-201" serial number painted on a fuel container in the diagram above. The diagram shows the engine shrouds, but the turbine exhaust fairings seem to be missing.
Here's another diagram with a similar Saturn IB on the pad. Although it has no serial number on its S-IB stage, it still has the SA-201 engine shrouds. However, the forward end of its S-IVB stage has a black and white roll pattern, which was present only on the SA-500F Saturn V facilities checkout vehicle; the S-IVB's forward skirt on SA-201 and SA-202 was painted entirely white.
This CCSD document was dated February of 1965, approximately one year before the first Saturn IB flight. This document depicts the same early Saturn IB concept, with engine shrouds and the SLA checkerboard pattern. It also has the roll pattern on the S-IVB forward skirt.
If you look closely at this drawing, you'll also see turbine exhaust fairings on the boattail; these were present only on SA-201 and SA-202, the first two Saturn IB vehicles manufactured. (Oddly, the two on-pad diagrams above lack the turbine exhaust fairings.)
Another fairly early diagram, it depicts the SA-201 engine shrouds and has also a full Apollo spacecraft (a Command/Service Module plus a Lunar Module). While the Saturn IB was originally intended to test the full Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit, the increasing weight of the CSM and LM forced NASA to change its plans, first to launch a CSM with only an LM ascent stage on the Saturn IB, and then to launch the CSM and LM on separate launch vehicles. (In the end, the original Saturn IB mission of simultaneously testing both the CSM and LM in Earth orbit was flown on a Saturn V, on Apollo 9).
A number of different Saturn IB configurations were initially envisioned. The basic configuration was to launch a CSM/LM into Earth orbit. As the weight of the full spacecraft increased and eventually outgrew the Saturn IB's capability, diagrams were updated to show only the CSM and LM ascent stage. The Saturn IB would also be called up to launch only the LM (without a CSM). Another configuration had no payload whatsoever: an aerodynamic nose cone was added directly to the top of the S-IVB stage; the mission was to investigate the way liquid hydrogen behaved in zero G, as a precursor to restarting an S-IVB stage for the trans-lunar injection burn. Another configuration envisioned a three-stage Saturn IB, using a Centaur upper stage.
In the end, only three configurations actually flew:
- The familiar Saturn IB-with-CSM configuration:
- AS-201, an unmanned mission, with CM-009, the first production Command Module flown on a Saturn;
- AS-202, an unmanned mission;
- AS-205 (Apollo 7);
- AS-206 (SL-2, the first manned Skylab mission);
- AS-207 (SL-3, the second manned Skylab mission);
- AS-208 (SL-4, the third manned Skylab mission);
- AS-210 (Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP));
- AS-203, which flew with no payload (simply a nosecone), to test the effects of zero G on the liquid hydrogen in the S-IVB fuel tank.
- AS-204, which flew with only an LM, with a different type of nosecone in place of the CSM. This mission flew LM-1 in an Earth-orbit mission.
The Apollo 7 configuration is the basic configuration which flew all of the Saturn IB missions other than AS-203 and AS-204. Differences from actual flight configurations include a Lunar Module ascent stage (the Saturn IB never launched any part of an LM with a CSM), turbine exhaust fairings (which flew only on AS-201 and AS-202), and engine fairings (only AS-201).
The AS-204 diagram is fairly accurate, although it seems to have at least two turbine exhaust fairings and engine shrouds. The first stage of the AS-203 vehicle appears to have been taken directly from the AS-205 diagram (or some common ancestor), and so has the same problems. I'm not certain what the round "dot" on the top of the nose cone is. Note that the AS-203 nose cone appears to be the same as that envisioned for the Saturn IB/Centaur.
Taken from the same Chrysler Corporation Space Division Saturn IB Orientation manual as the blue, in-flight drawing above, this cut-away CSM configuration diagram reflects an early configuration, with engine fairings, turbine exhaust fairings, and a checkerboard pattern on the SLA.
- The first stage (S-IB), at 80.3 feet in length and 21.4 feet in diameter, with 8 H-1 rocket engines of 200,000 lb thrust each. (On later missions, H-1 thrust was uprated to 205,000 lbs.)
- The second stage (S-IVB), at 58.4 feet in length and 21.7 feet in diameter, with a single J-2 rocket engine of 207,000 lb thrust.
- The instrument unit, at 3 feet high.
- The payload, or Apollo spacecraft, at 52.6 feet tall. While the "Apollo spacecraft" is generally cited to include the SLA (because the Lunar Module was inside it), it also usually includes the Launch Escape Tower.
- The Launch Escape Tower, at 29.1 feet.
If one does the math, the Saturn IB in this diagram comes to 223.4 feet tall, close to the "official" height of 224 feet.
January 1967 (the date of this diagram; nearly eleven months after AS-201 flew—without an LM; after AS-203 flew; and as the AS-204/Apollo 1 mission was preparing to fly) would seem to be late enough to reflect an accurate configuration, but instead this diagram shows the same basic concepts (Lunar Module ascent stage, turbine exhaust fairings, and engine shrouds) as the February 1964 diagram below:
This diagram, no doubt drawn by a launch vehicle (rather than spacecraft) draftsman, shows the Saturn IB with the interchangeable payload configurations which actually flew. Dated February 1968, this diagram reflects the reality that the full CSM/LM outgrew the Saturn IB's capabilities:
Dated September 1968, the following diagram shows the Saturn IB which launched Apollo 7:
These last four diagrams also show the MSFC station numbers. Station numbers are measured in inches, with station 100 being defined as the engine gimbal plane (I assume this convention started with the Jupiter missile, the first ABMA missile with a gimballing engine). Assigning station 100 to the engine gimbal plane became awkward in later boosters, giving rise to negative station numbers (the H-1 engine apparently gimballed 101.0 to 101.785 inches forward of its exit plane).
The highest station number is 2681.859 (or perhaps 2681.096), a bit over 223 feet 5 inches. Compensating for the negative station number in the last diagram, this puts the Saturn IB's height at just under 223 feet, 7 inches. The Saturn IB News Reference quotes the height at 224 feet, which is pretty close. (Although the H-1 engines were apparently about 1 3/4" inches shorter in February 1964, as that diagram shows the engine exit plane at Sta. 0.)
Since I found the diagrams above showing both the CSM and SA-204 configurations, I'll defer the SA-203 diagrams for the time being and transition directly to the SA-204/LM-1 (Apollo 5) diagrams.
The Saturn IB launch vehicle is the same as the CSM configuration (a point well-made with the dual-headed diagram above) and the S-IVB stage is topped with a standard Spacecraft-Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). However, rather than flying a CSM (which would have been too heavy) or a boilerplate (as on the last five Saturn I Block II flights), a simple nosecone covered the SLA.
Noteworthy in this diagram is the depiction of the S-IB's clustered propellant tank configuration: At the center is a 105" LOX container (based on the Jupiter missile tankage), surrounded by four 70" LOX containers alternating with four 70" RP-1 containers (derived from Redstone missile tankage).
- The first stage (S-IB), at 964" (80 feet, 4 inches) tall and 257" (21 feet, 5 inches) in diameter.
- The second stage (S-IVB), at 701" (58 feet, 5inches) tall and 260" (21 feet, 8 inches) in diameter.
- The instrument unit, at 36" (3 feet) tall.
The spacecraft, at 471" (39 feet, 3 inches) tall, which consisted of
- The adapter (a standard SLA), at 336" (28 feet exactly) tall.
- A nose cone, at 135" (11 feet, 3 inches) tall.
The entire "space vehicle" weighs in at 2,172" (181 feet exactly) tall.
This may well be the only diagram I've seen with metric station numbers. I usually think of the U.S. push for metrication as occurring in the early 1970s, but a bit of research shows that the National Bureau of Standards started the push as early as 1964. In any case, the metrication took place at the expense of some Imperial precision: Most diagrams with station numbers have units out to the thousandths of an inch, whereas here the measurements have been rounded to the nearest inch.
At first glance, it appears that the measurements on this diagram conflict with the one above (the top of the S-IB at Sta 962, rather than an S-IB height of 964" as shown above, and the overall height being 2,170", rather than 2,172" above). However, as with one of the CSM diagrams above, we see here that the bottom of the launch vehicle is at Sta. -1.785, so 1.785" must be added to the station numbers in this diagram.
Diagrams of SA-203 are harder to come by, but I have a few.
This diagram shows SA-203, the liquid hydrogen experiment. Without the SLA, CSM, and LES, it's a good deal shorter than the standard Saturn IB, at 173 feet. This diagram also gives some particulars about the aerodynamic nosecone.
January 1967, the date of this diagram, would seem to be late enough to reflect an accurate launch vehicle configuration, but again it shows the same AS-201-type protuberances about which I've been complaining in most of this page:
The diagram above notes that, even with the aerodynamic shroud, the launch vehicle still had a Q-ball, used to determine the vehicle's angle of attack. Perhaps the round dot on the AS-203 higher up on the page is supposed to represent the Q-ball?
The callouts on this diagram include
- Boost Protective Cover
- Spacecraft LM Adapter
- LH2 Tank Forward Dome
- S-IVB Stage
- Common Bulkhead
- APS Module
- Fuel Feed Duct
- S-IB Stage
- Center LOX Tank
- Antislosh Baffles
- Propellant Suction Line
- Hydraulic Actuator
- Heat Shield
- Launch Escape Motor
- Command Module
- RCS Engines
- Service Module
- Instrument Unit Umbilical
- Instrument Unit
- S-IVB Forward Umbilical
- Auxiliary Tunnel
- Helium Storage Sphere
- Main Tunnel
- Aft Dome
- S-IVB Aft Umbilical
- Ullage Rocket
- Aft Interstage
- J-2 Engine
- Spider Beam
- S-IB Forward Umbilical
- Antenna Panel
- Outer LOX Tank
- Fuel Tank
- S-IB Aft Umbilical
- Support and Holddown Fitting
- H-1 Engine