V-2 Combustion Chamber Cut-Aways

This page serves as a repository for cut-away diagrams and photos of the V-2/A-4 rocket engine's combustion chamber.


While looking through the Konrad Dannenberg Collection at the archives of the University of Alabama at Huntsville I happened upon this cut-away drawing (apparently drawing no. 4523 B) of the V-2 rocket engine:

V-2 missile A-4 rocket engine combustion chamber cut-away

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Scan and restoration by heroicrelics.

This diagram appears to date back to 22 July 1942, and is in German. Google's translator tells me that "Ansicht in Richtung" "View in the direction" (so "Ansicht in Richtung Y" would be "View in the Y direction"). Also, Google believes that "Lage der Bohrungen für Zusammenbau beachten" (in the small inset drawing near the lower right) means "Note location of boreholes for assembly."

The diagram had the following text. Tracy Dungan tells me that this text was not part of the original drawing, but was added by the Germans in the United States after the war.

V-2 missile rocket engine combustion chamber cut-away text

Text accompanying drawing.
Scan by heroicrelics.

Secret Command Matter

Remarks:

Since the development of the combustion chamber with mixing nozzle atomization did not produce the expected results and needed more development time, the combustion chamber with 18 burner cups was prepared for the series.

The form is compliant with the combustion chamber No. 35 with the following changes: inner skin of the middle section of 6 mm steel plate (1604.2 chrome-manganese-vanadium steel 60-70 kg/mm2).

The outer skin of the sphere part has 5 mm and continue to fm 4 mm deep drawing steelplates.

Non-cooled short part with protective coat against heat radiation. 6 inlets, 4 cooling chambers and better arrangement of the supply lines to them. At high-risk places additional cooling nozzles are screwed in. The burner cap elements are forged out of one piece with screwed-in feed nozzles. Also the thrustframe-connection is changed

Because of the difficult welding of light alloy the material of the combustion chamber head was changed to steel.

Translation courtesy Tracy Dungan, of www.v2rocket.com.

It appears to be dated 22 July 1942 ("Tag: 22.7.42"), but it also appears to be dated 9 August 1944 ("Aufgest. 9.9.44"). I know that "Tag" is simply "day" or "date", but I was unable to determine what the "Aufgest." abbreviation means.


The combustion chamber features a double-walled construction to facilitate regenerative cooling. Fuel (a 75% ethanol/water mixture) enters the area between the combustion chamber walls via six alcohol inlets located near the exit plane and makes its way up to the burner cups at the top of the engine.

Even with the water added to the fuel, combustion temperatures were high enough to cause burn-throughs of the inner wall. To combat this, regenerative cooling was augmented by film cooling, provided by four rows of holes which were drilled through the inner combustion chamber wall. Three rows were located in the spherical combustion chamber, one just forward of the burner cups, and two near the throat. Another row was located in the nozzle, near the alcohol inlets. (The upper-most row of holes is not visible in the diagram below; see the diagram above for the locations of the film-cooling holes.) Four film cooling pipes carried fuel from the forward end of the combustion chamber to each of the film cooling manifolds.

V-2 missile A-4 rocket engine combustion chamber cut-away

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From Technical Data on the Development of the A4/V-2 in the private collection of David L. Christensen. Also available from the NASA Technical Reports Server.
Scan and restoration by heroicrelics.